Initially, the Native People welcomed the Europeans to America. Christopher Columbus reported to Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand that the Indians on San Salvador Island responded warmly to the presents the Europeans gave them, and “turned so solely [their] mates that it was a marvel to see” (Hurtado 45).
Montezuma and the Aztecs welcomed the Spaniards as a God that got here in success of their future. This Aztec perception induced them to submit themselves solely beneath the Spaniards’ rule. Many Native American tribes, equivalent to these encountered by Jacques Cartier, Cabeza de Vaca, and Hernando de Soto, regarded the Europeans as highly effective shamans or Gods. The Native People would convey their ailing tribal members to them to heal their illness (Hurtado 56).
The inflow of European items vastly altered the connection between the Native People and the invading Europeans. Because the Native People started to make use of European items, equivalent to hatchets, iron arrowheads, sword blades, knives, and different items, their dependency upon Europeans turned extra established. Divisions between tribes started to emerge as some Native American tribes allied themselves with the English, and others allied themselves with the French settlers.
Initially, the Christian missionaries have been accepted additionally, because the polytheistic Native People didn’t resist the worship of the Christian god. However when the conquering Europeans started to scrupulously suppress the Native People’ faith, they started to withstand. As within the case of the Tewa Indians, they resisted passively at first by preserving their spiritual observances hidden from the Spanish. However because the Spanish invaders turned much more ruthless in suppressing their faith, the Tewa Indians overtly rebelled, killing lots of the Spanish, together with non-combatants equivalent to ladies, kids, and clergymen. The Tewa Indians additionally ransacked Christian church buildings and desecrated their holy locations.
One other kind of resistance utilized by the Native People is exemplified within the case of the peaceable Cherokee Indians. They labored throughout the confines of the authorized system of the US to withstand their compelled removing from their homelands in Georgia. They filed a lawsuit with the US federal authorities in opposition to the state of Georgia to have the ability to stay of their conventional homelands. Though they in the end misplaced the lawsuit and have been compelled to go away their homelands, the Cherokee tribe didn’t flip to warfare as a response to their tragic displacement. Nearly all of the Cherokees quietly submitted to the march often called the Path of Tears, by which so lots of them died alongside the way in which resulting from publicity and hunger from lack of sufficient provisions.
The Plains Indians, such because the Lakota, have been the probably Native People tribes to answer their oppression with open warfare. The taking of the Black Hills is an excellent instance of this. When the settlers first started to swarm into the Black Hills searching for gold, the U.S. authorities initially tried to maintain them out in accordance of the treaty with the Lakota and their allies. However as increasingly gold-seekers trekked in, the federal authorities reversed their place. The federal government supplied to purchase the Black Hills, which was rejected.
Then the U.S. authorities issued a legislation requiring all of the Indians to vacate the Black Hills. This motion led to such violent confrontations because the battles of Little Massive Horn and Wounded Knee. Not all of the Plains Indians fought on this warfare, as lots of them adopted Pink Cloud and remained out of the preventing. This taking of the Black Hills remains to be an essential problem right this moment, because the Lakota tribe continues to claim their declare over the Black Hills, and refuses to the touch the cash the US authorities holds in belief for the acquisition of the Black Hills.
Hurtado, Albert, Peter Iverson, and Thomas Paterson, editors. Main Issues in American Indian Historical past: Paperwork and Essays. Houghton Mifflin Firm Collegiate Division, 2000.