Britain managed not directly by the present native establishments. Sir Frederick Lugard's Indirect Rule labored properly within the North and the West the place Traditional rulers had been already in place. It nevertheless, failed woefully within the East the place there was no custom of central governing authority. What the British did due to this fact, was to create synthetic chiefs what they referred to as "Chiefs Chiefs". Because of the alien authority so created within the East and since a few of them had been really insignificant individuals, the warrant chiefs commanded little or no authority. People both ignored them or protested their rule. One of the upshots of this anomaly was the 'Aba Riots' of 1929, led by ladies who had been demonstrating in the primary, the imposition of tax by a warrant chief.
THE CLIFFORD CONSTITUTION OF 1922
The Governor of Nigeria at the moment, Sir Hugh Clifford had earlier attacked the National Congress of British West Africa, a political occasion which was shaped and led from the Gold Coast by Casely Hayford, for having despatched a petition to the secretary of state for the Colonies in London. One of the agitations of the educated minority in Lagos and Calabar areas was for correct constitutional illustration, and the petition was returned by Lord Milner, the secretary of state. Clifford himself had attacked the National Congress of British West Africa as a complete, however he absolutely appreciated the necessity for reform and particularly for elevated participation of Nigerians within the authorities of their very own nation.
One of the political penalties of the Clifford Constitution was that the introduction of voluntary precept within the Legislative Council stimulated political exercise, significantly in Lagos, which had three seats. Political events and newspapers had been based, though some had been short-lived as a result of private rivalries and inadequate funding. That was the early stage of Nigerian nationalism. Herbert Macaulay based the primary Nigerian political occasion – Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) – and which received all of the elections of 1923, 1928 and 1933.
The supremacy in Lagos of the NDP was not challenged till the inspiration in 1934 of the Lagos Youth Movement, which modified its title to Nigeria Youth Movement (NYM) in 1936. The NYM emerged from relative obscurity on the 1938 General Elections to problem the NNDP And it turned the predominant Nigerian occasion beneath Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe's management, till he resigned from it on an inside subject of confidence in 1941, after which it light away.
The affect of the Second World War (1945-1949) upon Nationalist actions in British West Africa was the identical in all territories. The affect was threefold: navy, psychological, and financial.
Large numbers of West African troops had been recruited and noticed navy service in East Africa, in North Africa, and most significantly, in South East Asia. They had been taught that they had been combating for freedom, and had been properly ready resettlement services after they returned residence and had been demobilized. However, West African items in South East Asia had been issued with pamphlets describing demobilization and resettlement procedures relevant to British troops being demobilized within the United Kingdom for after they bought again to their very own nations the West African troops had been completely faraway from the armed forces, And swelled the ranks of the unemployed.
During the battle, the propaganda of the Allies had been primarily based upon the idea of freedom (as certainly had Nazi propaganda directed on the colonies). The United States, as an ex-colony, has taken an aggressively anti-colonialist line from the time of the Atlantic Charter of the United Nations.
Finally, following war-time and post-war shortages and inflation, the worth of imported items went up, though the costs obtained by native producers for export didn’t go up like the identical quantity. This led to dissentient and a perception that the colonial plenty had been the victims of imperialist and capitalist exploitation.
The affect of Azikiwe's newspaper – West African Pilot – and different components energized the hunt for freedom. Such different components had been the affect of organized labor, pupil unionism and the Invigorating balm provided by the independence of India in 1947.
THE RICHARDS CONSTITUTION OF 1946
Sir Arthur Richards (later Lord Milverton) submitted his Constitutional proposals to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in December 1944. The proposals had been of two primary traits: the pursuit of self-determination and the event of regional separatism.
There was sweeping condemnation of the Richards Constitution by a plethora of protests, viz, the June 1945 basic strike of organized labor spearheaded by the labor chief, Pa Michael Imoudu, the formation and actions of the Zikist Movement and the growing impatience and radicalism of the Youths. The new temper of the second was captured by Ogedemgbe Macaulay (son of Herbert Macaulay) and Mallam Habib Abdallah. The youthful Macaulay was reported to have argued that "if we tell the governor to come down, he will not; we must drag him down and take over."
In a 1948 lecture titled "The Age of Positive Action", Mallam Abdallah mentioned:
"I hate the Union Jack with all my heart because it divides the people wherever it goes … it is a symbol of persecution, of domination, a symbol of exploitation … of brutality … we have passed the age of petition … age of resolution … the age of diplomacy. This is the age of action – plain, blunt and positive action. "
The Nationalist leaders had been strongly against the Richards Constitution as they claimed that it had been arbitrarily imposed upon them, since Richards had himself not consulted both the political leaders or public opinion normally.
THE MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION OF 1951
Sir John Macpherson took over from Sir Arthur Richards as Governor in April 1948. Macpherson tried a rapprochement with the Nigerian Nationalists, thus securing their co-operation in a standard effort in the direction of self-government.
In the early a part of his governorship, he carried out native authorities reforms which had been supposed to modernize and democratize native authorities construction of Southern Nigeria. He additionally arrange a particular fee, which included Dr. Azikiwe, to make suggestions on the 'Nigerianization' of the senior civil service. On 17th August 1948, Macpherson addressed the Legislative Council that "if it was the wish of the country" he was prepared to make constitutional adjustments inside three years.
Lengthy wrangling among the many Nationalists led to constitutional reform with the sensation polarizing the three main events primarily based upon the three Regions then current – the Action Group primarily based on Yoruba assist, the NCNC primarily based upon Ibo assist, and the NPC primarily based upon Hausa / Fulani assist, And thus establishing themselves as spokesmen of the three main tribal and regional pursuits.
The breakdown of the Macpherson Constitution – though it represented a construction inside which Nigerian political leaders might have labored out their political salvation had they wished on a foundation of 'Unity in Diversity'- its principal weaknesses lay in its failure to supply authorities on the Center. For instance, there was a dedication of the relationships on the one hand between the political events and alternatively between Nigerian leaders and expatriate officers. An additional constitutional deadlock developed within the Federal House of Representatives on account of the movement calling for, 'as a main political goal the attainment of self-government for Nigeria in 1956' which was moved by chief Anthony Enahoro, an Action Group member, On March 31, 1953.
THE LYTTELTON CONSTITUTION 1954
The political environment all through Nigeria quickly deteriorated into occasion and ethnic intolerance, as evinced, for instance, by the Kano Riots of 1953. Correspondingly, Mr. Oliver Lyttleton, the secretary of state, said within the House of Commons on 31st May 1953 that, because it appeared inconceivable for Nigerians to work collectively successfully in a tightly knit federation, 'Her majesty's Government had regretfully determined that the Nigerian Constitution must Be drawn to supply for higher regional automation and for the elimination of powers of intervention by the middle in issues which might, with out prejudice to different areas, be positioned solely inside regional competency. ' He accordingly invited Nigerian leaders to come back to London for a Constitutional Review. The Nigerian political leaders after some political bickering visited London from 30th July to 22nd August 1953 for the constitutional convention, reaching settlement on some main points. It was agreed that the convention ought to meet once more in Lagos in January 1954 to cope with different points like proposals for income allocation to the Regions.
The Lyttleton Constitution succeeded in giving the regional legislatures a excessive diploma of legislative autonomy having the ability to make legal guidelines on topics included within the 'regional' checklist and within the 'concurrent' checklist (through which a federal regulation might over-ride the regional regulation) . The Lyttleton Constitution had visualized that the areas would ultimately turn out to be self-governing in all issues inside their legislative competency, as a transitional stage in the direction of full self-government for Nigeria as a complete. As a results of the London constitutional convention in May and June 1957 beneath the chairmanship of the then secretary of state, Mr. Lennox-Boyd, each Eastern and Western Regions turned self-governing on eighth August, 1957 and, in March 1959, the Northern Region turned self-governing.
THE LONDON CONFERENCE OF 1958
The fourth constitutional convention to be held in eight years befell in London in September and October 1958. Apart from some discussions of the place of minority in Nigeria, and the choice to carry a General Election for an enlarged House of Representatives in December 1959, The most essential exit of the convention was the choice that barring accidents, Nigeria ought to turn out to be impartial on 1st October, 1960.
The basic election having held in December 1959, no single occasion obtained an general majority of the 312 seats within the new House of Representatives. The distribution of seats was as follows: Northern People's Congress (NPC) 134, Nigerian Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) 89, and Action Group (AG) 73, whereas others had 16. It would have been potential for a coalition of the NCNC and the AG to command a working majority within the House, and discussions had been held between the leaders to that impact. These negotiations broke down, partly because of the hostility between the 2 events and partly due to the concern that the Northern Government was primarily based upon the 2 Southern events solely. In the top, the NPC and the NCNC shaped a coalition authorities beneath Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. The AG, pissed off, turned the official opposition. Dr. Azikiwe resigned his seat within the House and was appointed President of the newly established Senate.
Comment: the union between the NPC and the NCNC turned a topic of life-long bitter feeling between Chief Obafemi Awolowo and Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe with the previous believing that the latter's political alignment with the NPC signified an unwarranted compromise and a sell-out.
THE INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION OF 1960
The first Constitution of an impartial Nigeria was contained within the Nigerian (Constitution) Order in Council, 1960, which got here into impact on 1st October, 1960. Note that in July 1960, the United Kingdom; Parliament had handed the Nigerian Independence Act, 1960, which made provision for the independence of all Nigeria besides the British Cameroons.
The 1960 Independence Constitution contained some essential provisions, as follows:
I. The Governor-General representing the Queen turned constitutional Head of State, performing solely on the recommendation of his ministers. The similar utilized to the Governors on the Regions.
Ii. Judges of the Supreme and High Courts had been to be appointed upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, made up of the present Judges. They might solely be dismissed on the advice of a Tribunal of Judges, confirmed by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
Iii. Constitutional provision was made for Nigerian citizenship.
Iv. A process for constitutional modification hitherto the prerogative of the United Kingdom authorities was included within the Constitution.
FROM 1960 – 1983
Nigeria having attained political independence on 1st October 1960, it have to be acknowledged that hope and anxiousness outlined the primary 5 years of self-rule. But hope quickly petered out, as anxiousness quickly yielded approach to stress, then to crises.
The Western Region Crisis of 1962
Within two years of independence, the emergency powers of the Federal Government needed to be referred to as into play, and it turned the topic of thought-about political acrimony. By declaring a state of emergency and supplanting the federal government of a Region was demonstrably so nice as to lift the query of whether or not Nigeria was a real Federation in any respect.
The Western Region disaster which developed from a character battle between Chief Awolowo, the chief of the Action Group and his deputy, Chief SL Akintola, the Premier of Western Region and cut up the Action Group utterly, resolved within the suspension of the Western Region Government by The Federal Government beneath its emergency powers. Having declared emergency rule the Federal Government appointed Senator Majekodumi, the Federal Minister of Health, as Administrator, with full powers as if he had been himself the Western Region Government.
Meanwhile, Chief Awolowo and a gaggle of his supporters had been charged with treasonable felony and conspiracy to overthrow the Federal Government. After a prolonged trial, he was sentenced and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. Chief Akintola was allowed to renew his premiership on 1st January, 1963, and as much as the date of his assassination through the first navy coup in January 1966, remained in workplace as chief of a brand new occasion, the Nigerian National Democratic Party.
The Mid-West State
On 23rd March 1962, the Federal Parliament accepted a Constitutional modification to supply for a fourth Region in Nigeria. The proposal was then accepted by the legislatures of Eastern and Northern Regions, though rejected on the time by the Western legislature. A referendum was held within the space affected on 13th July 1963, which has an awesome assist to the creation of a brand new Region.
The Mid-West Region, shaped out of the non-Yoruba areas of Western Region, got here into existence on the 12th August 1963. It obtained a Constitution on ninth January 1964 much like that of Western Region, after having been administrated beneath the aegis of the Federal Government for the primary six months.
How Nigeria Become a Republic
Proposals for the transformation of Nigeria right into a Republic had been drawn up by the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, in session with the Regional Premiers and introduced to the delegates of all of the political events on the Constitutional Conference held in Lagos on the 25th and 26th July 1963. The Conference agreed that Nigeria ought to turn out to be a Federal Republic inside the Commonwealth on 1st October 1963. It was determined that the primary president needs to be Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, previously the Governor-General of the Federation, and that subordinate Presidents needs to be elected for a interval of 5 years at a time by the members of the Senate and the House of Representatives sitting collectively.
The Republican Constitution of 1963
The new Constitution included the choices of the Constitutional Conference and was handed into regulation by the Federal Parliament on 19th September 1963. It got here into impact on 1st October 1963. The Republic Constitution was titled "The 1963 Constitution (Act No. 20 of 1963) ) And it was a prolonged doc working into twelve chapters with quite a few sections. One very important part of the 1963 Constitution was Section 157 which named Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe as President of the Republic with impact from the date of graduation of the Constitution. Be famous that the 1963 Constitution was Federal, Republican, Written and Rigid.
The Breakdown of Law and Order
The Western Region was already politically divided because the rift between Awolowo and Akintola in 1962, lived by a interval of accelerating political stress through the Federal General Election Campaign of 1964. This political stress was not given an opportunity to subside after the election, owing partially To the costs and counter-charges of illicit practices through the election. A recent wave of election fever which was stimulated by the information that the Regional General Election was certain to happen throughout 1965, and rumors had it that the election may happen as early as April 1965, however within the occasion Chief Akintola realized his intentions , Thus permitting the fever to proceed, till the announcement that the date had been fastened for the autumn of 1965.
The Regional electoral outcomes had been introduced by the Regional Electoral Commission, and confirmed an awesome majority for Chief Akintola's NNDP. In response, the Action Group instantly declared that in truth their performing chief, Alhaji Adegbenro, had received the election and was there earlier than the lawful Premier, however the courts dominated that Chief Akintola retained the Premiership. The Action Group had claimed that the elections had been 'rigged' they usually had been supported in a press release made by the chairman of the Electoral Commission.
Political dissension and violence between the 2 events elevated to such a degree that by the top of December 1965, the Nigerian police pressure, severely undermanned and bodily exhausted from the pressure of a yr or extra of violence within the Region, discovered itself dropping its grip On the scenario and unable to ensure the upkeep of regulation and order. [This was a period the political violence in the Region was euphemistically nick-named "operation wetice" during which political hooligans and arsonists powdered petrol on political opponents and burnt them alive, including their houses and other material holdings].
EMERGENCE OF MILITARY GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA
As a results of the deteriorating scenario in Western Region coupled with the impotence of the police to include the widespread violence from the top of December 1965 to the center of January 1966 throughout which gangs of hooligans recognized highway blocks on the primary roads between Lagos and Ibadan .
Still within the grip of its deadly indecision, the Federal Government didn’t act. In the early hours of Saturday, 15th January 1966, drastic motion for which the scenario referred to as and with which the Federal Government had not responded, was taken. Troops beneath the command of Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu assassinated Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Premier of Northern Nigeria and killed various senior military officers who weren’t prepared to assist their actions. Other troops recruited Chief Akintola, the Premier of Western Nigeria, and kidnapped his deputy, Chief Fani-Kayode. Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa and Chief Festus Okotie-Eboh, the Federal Minister of Finance, had been additionally kidnapped in Laos, and a preventive guard was placed on the residences of the Eastern Nigeria Ministers. The our bodies of Abubakar and Okotie-Eboh weren’t discovered till 21st January, till that point their destiny remained unknown.
The remaining members of the Federal Council of Ministers met on 15th January, introduced that a military mutiny had taken place, and said that the General Officer Commanding, Major General JTU Aguiyi-Ironsi (who had succeeded Major-General Sir Charles Welby-Everard much less Than a yr beforehand) remained utterly loyal to the Federal Government.
The subsequent day, Sunday, 16th January, the President of the Senate, Dr. Nwafor Orizu, who was Acting President of Nigeria within the absence abroad on sick depart of Dr. Azikiwe, broadcast to the nation saying that the Council of Ministers had suggested him handy over the powers of presidency to Major-General Aguiyi-Ironsi.
Immediately on assuming energy, Major-General Aguiyi-Ironsi in a broadcast to the individuals of Nigeria, said that he had arrange a navy authorities and promulgated the primary decrees to droop these Sections of the Constitution making provisions for the President of the Republic, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Parliament, Regional Governors, Regional Premiers, Regional Executive Councils, and Regional Assemblies. Aguiyi-Ironsi made it clear that the 'main goal of the navy authorities was to re-establish regulation and order, and to reactivate the Civil administration. Its long run targets had been to eradicate tribalism and regionalism in any form or type and to guide a unified Nigeria in the direction of the adoption of a brand new civil structure.
Military Governors had been appointed for every of the Regions, with Aguiyi-Ironsi as Supreme Commander and Head of the Military Government.
A research group had been arrange on 21st March 1966 beneath Chief Rotimi Williams to make suggestions for a unitary type of authorities. After severe rioting by Northerners in opposition to Southerners (specifically Ibos) within the North as a result of Northerners feared that the proposed unitary type of authorities was designed to topic them to Southern domination, the military as soon as once more intervened in July 1966. Northern troops occupied General Aguiyi-Ironsi In Ibadan, collectively along with his host, Lt-Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, navy Governor of the West, and assassinated each of them. This unhappy occasion occurred on 29th July 1966.
After a interval of confusion, through which the nation was leaderless, Lt-Colonel Yakubu Gowon, a Christian Northerner from Angas ethnic group (in current day Plateau State), though not essentially the most senior officer within the military, proved to be the one chief To which the troopers would rally. He thus turned the Head of the Federal Military Government.
The first step taken by the brand new Gowon administration was to reverse Ironsi's choice to determine a unitary type of authorities. The interim was to allay Northern fears of Southern (and specifically Ibo) domination, since Ironsi had surrounded himself with Ibo advisors, inside his six months in workplace. The new Gowon rule pacified the individuals of the West and the Mid-West by releasing Chief Awolowo and Chief Enahoro, and by convening a Conference, which was to incorporate representatives from all of the areas, to draft a brand new Federal Constitution.
The new administration, nevertheless, bumped into difficulties instantly, because the Military Governor of the Eastern Region Lt-Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu (an Ibo) bitter in regards to the tragedy of his individuals within the North, refrained to come back to Lagos with out his security can be assured . The Supreme Miltary Council met in Lagos from 14th to 16th October, 1966, with Lt-Colonel Ojukwu absenting himself as he had not been given a assure of non-public security. There was main assist on the convention for the creation of extra states in Nigeria, and plebiscite ought to happen to find out the needs of the individuals.
Aburi Meeting and Subsequent Secession of the East from Nigeria
Since Ojukwu and Gowon couldn’t see eye-to-eye with one another on the assorted issues confronting the nation as a complete, with specific reference to the Eastern query, a committee of Western Nigeria Obas and Chiefs led by Chief Awolowo, began a spherical Of talks with regional leaders in an try to unravel the issue of continued Federation. The Eastern leaders persevered of their refusal to take a seat down to speak, and the outcome was that the committee needed to abandon its efforts in mid-November.
The National Liberation Council in Ghana tried in December 1966, to mediiate between Gowon and the navy governors within the areas, together with Ojukwu. The assembly befell in Aburi, Ghana, on 4th and fifth January 1967. After the Aburi assembly, all events returned to Nigeria satisfied worthy settlement had been reached, nevertheless, Ojukwu's interpretation of the which means of settlement differed from these of the opposite Participants. (It needs to be famous that it had usually been agreed on the Aburi assembly that every regional governor ought to have given the facility of veto over any choice of the Supreme Military Council which could have an effect on this, as they felt it severely beneath the facility of the Federal Military Government).
A decree revealed by the Federal Military Government on 17th March, purporting to implement the Aburi settlement made secession unlawful and empowered the SMC to take over the powers of presidency in any area the place it had declared a state of emergency.
On 31st March, Ojukwu revealed an edict, the impact of which was to explain to the Regional Government all revenues (Oil royalties, and so on.) which had beforehand been ascribed to the Federal Military Government. On 18th April 1967, he took over federal installations on Eastern soil, together with the railways, posts, and Telecommunications, and so on.
On 27th May, 1967, Ojukwu secured an awesome vote within the 300 – member Regional Consultative Assembly authorizing him to proclaim the Region's independence because the 'Republic of Biafra' on the earliest potential date. The subsequent day, Gowon declared a state of emergency all through Nigeria, assumed full powers as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, and promulgated a call dividing Nigeria into twelve states. The former Northern Region was divided into six states and the Eastern Region into three. The Mid-West turned one state, whereas the Western Region minus Colony Province turned the brand new Western State. The Colony Province joined the previous Federal Territory of Lagos to turn out to be Lagos State.
Ojukwu introduced that the decree dismembering Eastern Region wouldn’t have been carried out and proclaimed the Republic of Biafra on 30th May, 1967. In response, Gowon denounced this as an act of riot, imposed monetary and financial sanctions on the territory and ordered basic mobilization.
As a results of frontier clashes between Ojukwu's forces and people of Gowon, Ojukwu threatened whole battle on 30th June, 1967 if Nigeria entered his territory. This condemned in Gowon dismissing Ojukwu each as a navy governor and as a military officer. The invasion of the East by the Federal forces began on July sixth, 1967. The collapse of Biafra's aspect got here instantly; It was signaled in a broadcast by Ojukwu on 11th January 1970, saying that he was handing over energy to his deputy Major-General Phillip-Effiong and that 'his presence exterior Biafra was very important within the seek for an early and honorable finish to the Civil War. ' Effiong the subsequent day ordered the 'orderly cancellation' of his troops and a delegation was prepared to barter a peace settlement with the Federal authorities. By 14th January, Federal troops had occupied the entire of the territory, and the subsequent day, Lt-Colonel Effiong (he reversed to his substantial rank within the Nigerian military) principally surrendered in Lagos.
The navy authorities of Gowon lasted 9 years from, 1966 to 1975, when he was overthrown, whereas on an official journey to Uganda, by General Murtala Muhammed. One of the main causes for Gowon's overthrown was that he over-stayed in energy with none clear targets about setting the timeframe handy over energy to a civil administration over which he usually reneged.
General Muhammed himself was wasppled in a coup after solely six months in energy on 13th February 1976, by Lt-Colonel Buka Dimka. Following the assassination of General Muhammed, the mantle of management fell on the then Brigadier Olusegun Obasanjo who was fast deputy of General Muhammed. Obasanjo piloted the affairs of Nigeria and carried out a General Election, through which an elected Executive civil President within the particular person of Alhaji Shehu Shagari turned President of Nigeria, on the platform of the National Party of Nigeria, on 1st October, 1979.
Shagari rule Nigeria for 4 years and large ineptitude and political corruption had been the order of the day. It was certainly a testy interval in Nigeria's chequered historical past because the 'years of the Locusts' actually entered the center-stage in Nigeria's political scene.
The Era of Tunde Idiagbon and Muhammadu Buhari
Shagari's rule was performed out on 31st December, 1983 by the duo of Brigadier Tunde Idiagbo and Major-General Muhammadu Buhari who rode into the system with nice promise. They wore lengthy faces and tried to whip everybody into line. They made 'disciplie' their watch phrase and didn’t miss any alternative to boast that they had been in cost. But after sixteen months within the saddle, they had been kicked out to the fast pleasure of many (in August 1985).
General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida, popularly referred to as IBB, got here in August 1985, with a profitable smile. Like others earlier than him, he began properly. It took nearly all his eight-year reign for his hidden agenda to turn out to be obvious. By then, Nigerians had been made to swallow the bitter tablet of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) through which the nation's GDP revenue of about $ 1200 of the eighties plummeted to $ 250. The General turned Nigeria right into a political laboratory, as he banned and unbanned politicians, endlessly tinkering with the method. The biggest political disaster that Babangida bequeathed to the nation was the annulment of the Presidential Election victory received by Chief MKO Abiola on June 12th, 1993 and for causes finest identified to him, the nation was given the June 12 disaster. Babangida stepped apart and strung collectively an interim authorities that was later declared unlawful by the courts.
The Era of Sani Abacha
One of the upshots of that disaster was the emergence of General Sani Abacha, the dictator who for 5 years squeezed the nation to submission. Abacha, it was who jailed Abiola, the winner of the elections, for daring to his many detention camps, closed down media homes, hangers activists and despatched his killer squads after opposition figures. Nigerians lived in concern and distress. During this era, Nigeria waged by its darkest part in historical past.
The Era of Abdulsalam Abubakar
When Abacha handed on, General Abdulsalam Abubakar got here in 1988, managed a good transition, and set the nation up on the trail of goals and hope. On May 29, 1999, a brand new day dawned when Chief Olusegun Obasanjo was sworn in because the President, having received the General Elections beneath the People Democratic Party (PDP), for a 4 yr time period which terminated in yr 2003.
Again, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo mounted the saddle once more for a second time period as Nigeria's elected civilian President after having received the 2003 General Elections beneath the platform of People Democratic Party. He entered his second time period as President on May 29th, 2007, when the baton fell on late President Musa Yar'Adua. Yar'Adua, following a protracted sickness, died on May fifth, 2009.
The Era of Goodluck Jonathan
The period of Goodluck Ebele Jonathan turned the substantive President after his boss, President Musa Yar'Adua died in 2009. After a profitable main election of his Party, the PDP, Jonathan was thrown up because the flag bearer and Presidential candidate for the 2011 General Elections to which he lastly received in a landslide on April 16, 2011. He was sworn in as President of Nigeria on May 29, 2011.